Thursday, April 7, 2011

Nuclear Chemistry

After doing some research, I became very interested in the different aspects of nuclear medicine. Therefore, I decided to do my project on none other than this topic. It is truly quite interesting, and I definitely learned a lot. If you would like to view my prezi presentation on nuclear chemistry, click here.

Wednesday, December 15, 2010


acetic acid - HC2H3O2
Heinz White Vinegar

sodium fluoride - NaF
Colgate Toothpaste

hydrochloric acid - HCl
Kellogg's Raisin Bran- Two Scoops...yum

calcium phosphate - Ca3(PO4)2
Nutter Butter's

magnesium chloride - MgCl2
Refresh Eye Drops

   potassium iodide - KI
     Morton's Iodized Salt

ferrous sulfate - (II) FeSo4 or (III) Fe2(SO4)3
Campbell's Tomato Basil Soup

 calcium sulfate - CaSo4
 Restaurant Style Croutons

ammonium chloride - NH4Cl
Bedhead Shine Hairspray

sodium chloride - NaCl
Opti-Free Express Contact Solution


Wednesday, October 6, 2010


Ernest Rutherford
        Ernest Rutherford was a chemist from New Zealand who became known as the “father of nuclear physics”.  He got his degree in New Zealand and worked as a school teacher there until he moved to the United Kingdom. He worked at Cambridge and Manchester and became a professor. He was awarded the Novel Prize because he contributed greatly to physics with his discoveries. In 1911, he discovered that atoms have a small charged nucleus that is surrounded by empty space and is orbited by small electrons (Rutherford Model of the Atom). However, even after this discovery, in 1919 he came to discover the proton.

        The proton was thought to be an elementary particle until the discovery of quarks was made. A quark is an elementary particle with an electric charge equal to 1/3 or 2/3 that of the electron. The proton is made up of two up quarks (lightest of all quarks) and one down quark (most stable quark). Gluons hold these quarks together. The proton is found inside of the nucleus in an atom, and it produces POSITIVE electrical charge.  Its mass is approximately 1 1.67 x 10-27 kg, its charge is approximately 1.602 x 10-19 Coulombs, and its diameter is approximately 1.65 x 10-15 m. 

        The proton was first noticed by Rutherford when he was converting nitrogen into oxygen through a nuclear reaction. While he was shooting alpha particles into nitrogen gas, he saw spots of hydrogen nuclei being released. When the shooting of the alpha particles into the nitrogen gas was over, Rutherford realized that the scintillation detectors (flash of light) showed the hydrogen nuclei came from the nitrogen. He made the conclusion that nitrogen was made up of hydrogen nuclei, and he named the hydrogen nucleus the “proton”. Next, Rutherford shot positive alpha particles towards gold foil. He expected all of the particles to go right through the foil, however he was surprised. Some of the alpha particles went through, and other bounced back. He discovered that the alpha particles were bouncing back because the atom was composed of a dense nucleus in the center which was surrounded by empty space with electrons orbiting around the nucleus. However, he analyzed that the positive particles were bouncing back because there was some kind of positive charge inside of the gold foil in order for it to be able to repel the alpha particles. Then he thought that there should be positive charges within the atom in order to balance the negative electrons and create an electrically balanced atom. His discovery proved that the protons were concentrated in a tiny fraction of the atom’s volume.
 Rutherford's Atomic Model
Experiment Diagram


These videos are helpful to understanding Rutherford's discoveries. 

        The discovery of protons was important because it helped in the development of the atomic theory, which allowed for a better understanding of home molecules work and bond together.  It also helped Rutherford realize that one element could be transformed into another by the process of shooting the element with alpha particles. The proton is a very important part of the periodic table because it determines the number of electrons in an element and it also determines which exact chemical each element is. Overall, the discovery of the proton is very important and has helped many discoveries after Rutherford’s time.


Rutherford Picture:
Cyprus. Amazon, n.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2010.

Rutherford Information:
The Physics of the Universe. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2010.

Writer, Max. "The Story of the Proton Discovery and the People Behind it."
     articledashboard. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2010.

Proton Information:
"What is a Quark?" wiseGeek. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2010.

Jones, Andrew Zimmerman. "Proton-Definition of a Proton." About. N.p., n.d. Web.
     6 Oct. 2010. .

Atomic Model Picture:
"Rutherford's Experiment and Atomic Model." The Internet Encyclopedia of
     Science. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2010.
     images%3Fq%3Drutherford%2527s%2Batomic%2Bmodel%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1280   %26  bih%3D553%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=466&oei=Fj6tTI_RAcHflgeOtqnQBw&e

Admin. "Who Discovered the Proton?" Everyday Guide. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2010.

 Also diagram of experiment:
"1919 Discovery of Protons." ORACLE Think Quest. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2010.


"Discovery of Proton and Neutron." eHow. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2010.

Saturday, September 11, 2010

Properties of Baking Soda

The item we selected for this experiment was baking soda. At first we couldn't come up with ideas because the only time we had ever used it was for baking. However, we finally came up with many creative experiments which probably would never happen in a normal household. We made many observations and tested the item with different typed of materials. Here are our results:

 Physical Properties:
  • the color of the baking soda was white
  • it is a solid
  • it has a powdery texture
  • it has no odor
  • it dissolves in water

          original baking soda                                                                           dissolved in water

Chemical Properties:
  •  First, we added 2 teaspoons of baking soda to 1/4 cup of vinegar. The mixture bubbled and rose and slowly, the baking soda dissolved in the vinegar. Then we put the mixture into a pan and heated it. This caused the mixture to immediately bubble.
  •  Next, we heated the baking soda by itself. For some reason we thought that something big would happen, but actually nothing happened. It stayed the same and had no chemical reaction.
  • Third, we mixed 1 teaspoon of baking soda with 1/4 cup of orange juice. I had a feeling that something would happen because orange juice has acid. The mixture started to make bubbles and it turned a light creamy orange color. Then we heated the mixture and it foamed, causing the mixture to rise. It also became a very light and fluffy liquid.

orange juice mixture                                                                                   heating  mixture
  • Then, we added 20 quirts of lysol disinfectant cleanser to a teaspoon of baking soda. It bubbled and foamed, and ti also rose. I turned into a white foamy material. After about 30 seconds, it slowly settled down and became a soapy liquid. 
                                                      lysol mixed with baking soda
  • Next, we added 1/2 cup of vanilla icing to 3 teaspoons of baking soda and heated the mixture. At first, the mixture started to turn into a liquid, but then it started burning. It slowly started to become a thick dark brown paste.
                                                         heating baking soda and icing
  • In addition, we added 2 cups of baking soda to 1/4 cup of vinegar, and we added and egg yolk to the mixture. This experiment scared us a little because it immediately foamed and almost overflowed. The egg slowly sunk to the bottom of the mixture while the foam kept rising. This was by far the best experiment. 
                                                    egg, vinegar, and baking soda mixture

As you can see, we had a very eventful chemistry experiment. It was fun and we understood chemical and physical properties a lot better after seeing some examples of them.